Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana: Transforming Lives through Clean Cooking Fuel Access


Access to clean cooking fuel is a fundamental necessity for households to ensure a healthier and more sustainable way of life. However, in India, a significant portion of the population, especially those living below the poverty line, has long been deprived of this essential resource. Recognizing the urgent need to address this issue and improve the lives of women and their families, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) on 1 May 2016. This ambitious initiative aimed to distribute 50 million LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to women from Below Poverty Line families. With a budgetary allocation of ₹80 billion, the PMUY aimed to transform the cooking practices of millions of households, improve health outcomes, empower women, and drive social and economic development. In this essay, we will delve into the significance, implementation, achievements, and the subsequent launch of Ujjwala Yojana 2.0 in 2021, showcasing the transformative power of this flagship scheme.

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I. Addressing the Urgency: The Need for Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana:

Access to clean cooking fuel is a matter of utmost importance for multiple reasons, including:

1. Health Hazards and Environmental Impact:
Traditional cooking methods, such as using firewood, coal, or kerosene, pose severe health risks due to indoor air pollution. The resulting smoke and pollutants lead to respiratory illnesses, especially affecting women and children. Moreover, the extensive use of solid fuels contributes to deforestation, environmental degradation, and climate change.

2. Gender Empowerment and Social Equity:
Women, being primarily responsible for household cooking, often bear the brunt of using traditional cooking fuels. The PMUY recognizes the importance of empowering women by providing them with access to clean cooking fuel, improving their health, safety, and overall well-being. By focusing on women from Below Poverty Line families, the scheme aims to address social and gender inequalities prevalent in Indian society.

II. Objectives and Key Features of Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana:

The Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana is driven by several key objectives and features that contribute to its success and impact:

1. Objectives:
a) Protecting Women and Children’s Health: By replacing traditional cooking methods with clean cooking fuel, the scheme aims to reduce indoor air pollution and associated health hazards.
b) Empowering Women: The PMUY specifically targets women from Below Poverty Line families, recognizing their vital role as primary caregivers and aiming to enhance their safety, health, and socio-economic status.
c) Promoting Sustainable Development: The scheme aligns with national and global commitments towards sustainable development goals, particularly those related to clean energy access, health, and gender equality.

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2. Key Features:
a) Identification of Beneficiaries: The Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) data is utilized to identify eligible beneficiaries for the scheme, ensuring that the assistance reaches those who need it the most.
b) Subsidized Connections: The PMUY provides a subsidy on the initial connection fee, making LPG connections affordable for Below Poverty Line households. This subsidy eases the financial burden on these families, enabling them to switch to cleaner cooking fuels.
c) Financial Assistance: To further support beneficiaries, Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) offer interest-free loans to cover the cost of the stove and subsequent refills, making the transition to LPG even more accessible.
d) Behavioural Change Communication: The PMUY incorporates extensive awareness campaigns and communication strategies to educate beneficiaries about the benefits of clean cooking fuel, proper usage, and safety measures.

III. Implementation and Achievements of Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana:

The successful implementation of the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana has resulted in numerous achievements, positively impacting the lives of millions of households across India:

1. Wide-scale Distribution:
The scheme has surpassed its initial target of distributing 50 million LPG connections to women from Below Poverty Line families. By reaching remote areas, tribal communities, and regions with difficult terrain, the PMUY has brought clean cooking fuel to previously underserved populations.

2. Health Benefits and Reduced Environmental Impact:
The adoption of LPG as a cooking fuel has significantly reduced indoor air pollution, leading to improved respiratory health outcomes for women and children. Moreover, the shift from solid fuels to LPG has mitigated deforestation, reduced carbon emissions, and contributed to a cleaner and greener environment.

3. Socio-economic Impact:
The PMUY has had a positive impact on the socio-economic fabric of beneficiary households. Access to clean cooking fuel has saved valuable time spent on collecting firewood, allowing women to engage in income-generating activities or pursue education. Furthermore, the scheme has created employment opportunities in the LPG supply chain, contributing to local economic development.

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IV. Ujjwala Yojana 2.0: Building on Success and Expanding Reach:

To build upon the achievements of the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana, the government launched the Ujjwala Yojana 2.0 in 2021. This revamped version seeks to further enhance access to clean cooking fuel and strengthen the socio-economic impact. With a focus on sustainable development and the last-mile delivery of LPG connections, Ujjwala Yojana 2.0 aims to address emerging challenges, including increased LPG coverage, affordability, and sustained behavior change.


    • A woman of the BPL household, may apply for a new LPG connection (in the prescribed format) to the nearest LPG distributor.
    • While submitting the application form, the woman needs to submit detailed address, Jandhan Bank Account and Aadhar number of all members of the household.
    • The connection will be issued by the Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) to the eligible beneficiaries after processing the application.
  • In case the consumer opts for EMI, the EMI amount will be adjusted against the subsidy amount due to the consumer on each refill.


The Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana has emerged as a game-changer, significantly improving the lives of millions of women and their families across India. By providing access to clean cooking fuel, the scheme has mitigated health hazards, empowered women, and promoted sustainable development. The subsequent launch of Ujjwala Yojana 2.0 demonstrates the government’s commitment to building on the achievements of the PMUY and reaching even more households in need. As the nation moves towards a cleaner and healthier future, the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana stands as a testament to the transformative power of inclusive and sustainable initiatives.

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